Escaping characters in shell scripting

Escaping is a method of quoting single characters. The escape (\) preceding a character tells the shell to interpret that character literally. With some commands, like sed and echo, for example, the escaping has the opposite effect, it toggles on

Quoting characters in shell scripting

Quoting means putting a string in quotes. By quoting a string, we protect the special characters in the string from reinterpretation or expansion in a shell script. A special character is a character that has an different interpretation than its

How to send signals to processes in Linux and Unix

Killing a process doesn’t always mean stopping it. In this article I will show you how to send signals to processes with kill, pkill and killall and key combinations. How to kill processes by their PID: kill The kill command

The Unix / Linux signals

The Linux / Unix signals are used for transmitting a special condition to a process. In this article I will explain the basic things every Unix user should know about the signals. The signals can be sent by both, the

How to disable the Beep in FreeBSD

Disabling the Hardware Beep is different from system to system. In this article I will show you how to disable the Hardware Beep / Bell in FreeBSD and PCBSD. How to disable the Hardware Beep in PCBSD and FreeBSD: Type

Viruses in Linux and Unix ?

In this article you will see the word Windows a lot. Because the viruses feel like home in the Windows systems. Do viruses for Linux exist? Yes, viruses for Unix and Linux systems do exist. The 100 % secured operating

How to copy paste in the Gnome-Terminal

The Ctrl – C / Ctrl – V copy / paste classic commands do not work in the Gnome-Terminal. In the Gnome-Terminal, Ctrl – C terminates the process, while Ctrl – V is interpreted different by the shell. I recommand

How to find files in Linux and Unix – part 1

Find is a very powerfull command for searching files and folders in Linux and Unix. This is the first find article in a serios of three. The find command uses the brute force to search for files and folders. The

How to give root access to a group for a few commands only

Sometimes you need to allow a group of users to use a few root commands or exec scripts with root priviledges. In Linux, to give limited root access to a group, you need to edit the /etc/sudoers file. Do not

Understanding the /etc/sudoers file

The /etc/sudoers file is the configuration files for sudo. These is the file where the users and groups with root priviledges are stored. Do not edit the /etc/sudoers by hand, use sudo visudo instead. visudo opens the /etc/sudoers file in

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